Explainable artificial intelligence models for enhancing classification reliability of ground weapon systems


  • Gimin Bae orea Army Research Center for Future and Innovation
  • Janghyong Lee Korea Army Research Center for Future and Innovation




classification of ground weapon systems, explainable artificial intelligence, transfer learning, MobileNet, Grad-CAM


This study focused on the development of a reliable artificial intelligence (AI) model to enhance the classification reliability of ground weapon systems for surveillance and reconnaissance applications. The proposed AI model overcomes the limited data availability of military objects such as tanks, canons, and multiple-launch rockets by leveraging transfer learning and fine-tuning techniques. A comprehensive evaluation of 35 deep learning models using the publicly available Military-Vehicles dataset on Kaggle identified MobileNet as the most suitable model for ground weapon system classification. The selected MobileNet model achieved an average F1 score of 92% when tested on a dataset comprising five types of ground-weapon systems. In addition, the application of the explainable AI technique Grad-CAM provided insights into the decision-making process of the proposed model and verified its reliability. Real-world evaluations using frames extracted from training videos demonstrated promising accuracy for tanks, canons, and multiple-launch rockets. However, challenges related to object occlusion and the absence of target objects in the images were observed, which resulted in misclassifications. Overall, this study contributes to the development of explainable and reliable AI models for enhancing the performance of ground surveillance and reconnaissance systems.


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Author Biographies

Gimin Bae, orea Army Research Center for Future and Innovation

* (First Author) Korea Army Research Center for Future and Innovation, Corporal, [email protected], https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6587-4209

육군 미래혁신연구센터 초연결감시정찰기술연구과 인공지능연구원

Janghyong Lee, Korea Army Research Center for Future and Innovation

** (Corresponding Author) Korea Army Research Center for Future and Innovation, Lieutenant Colonel, [email protected], https://orcid.org/0009-0003-2751-7560.


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Representative ground weapon systems in ROK(Republic of Korea)




How to Cite

Bae, G., & Lee, J. (2023). Explainable artificial intelligence models for enhancing classification reliability of ground weapon systems. Journal of Advances in Military Studies, 6(3), 83-104. https://doi.org/10.37944/jams.v6i3.216